How Perseverance rover landed on Mars?

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Perseverance rover

NASA’s long-awaited perseverance rover has successfully landed on Mars. Protected inside a capsule, the robot took seven months to reach the reddish planet.

Since Mars is far away from Earth, it takes 3 to 22 minutes for a signal to reach Mars from Earth. For this, the robot has to land on its own through artificial intelligence. And since NASA says there are seven minutes of panic when the robot lands, entry, descent and landing (EDL) in the atmosphere on Mars was the most challenging part of the mission.

After traveling at a speed of 13,000 miles per hour, the robot has to reach the rest position in about seven minutes. So to achieve this goal, NASA scientists created an engineer sequence perfectly. This sequence is guided by a computer cores of more than 500k lines. Even a small mistake in the sequence could have crashed the robot on Mars.

Mars AtmosphereSo after entering the atmosphere of Mars, the first task of slowing down the spacecraft capsule was in the atmosphere of Mars. But after entering the atmosphere of Mars, the heat shield of the capsule reached a temperature of about 1600 degrees Celsius due to thermal friction. But the problem with the atmosphere of Mars is that it is only 1% of the Earth’s atmosphere. So such a thin atmosphere cannot reduce the speed of the capsule beyond a certain limit.

Parachute on rover

That’s why NASA scientists built a huge parachute to slow it down. After opening the parachute, it lowers the speed of the capsule to two hundred miles per hour.

 

 


Rocket for Land

But still it is much faster to land soft on Mars. So the scientists had no choice but to cut the parachute and arrange the rocket.

 

 

This time the robot has a very important task a few moments before it touches the ground of Mars. The task is to find a perfect place before landing on Mars. But leaving its rocket booster on, the robot will not be able to go much closer to the surface of Mars. Because doing so would make the rocket a dust storm. But NASA engineers came up with a great idea to solve this problem. Whose name is Sky Crane Maneuver.

Sky Crane Maneuver
Sky Crane Maneuver

By which the robot will slowly land on the ground from the hanging position from 20 meters above the ground. It binds the robot with a 21-foot-long rope and slowly lowers it so that it can land perfectly.

 

But the work does not end here. There is more important work to be done. The rocket booster that was used to land had to fly a long way. So that it does not collide with the Perseverance rover. And after that Perseverance rover became the number six robot that landed safely on Mars.

Ingenuity Helicopter for Mars
Ingenuity

Not only that, but another part of the 2020 Mars mission is another small helicopter called Ingenuity. This will be the first time a helicopter will fly in the Martian atmosphere.

 

 

The perseverance rover will collect samples from the land of Mars. Which will be useful for future Mars missions. In addition, the robot will convert carbon dioxide into oxygen. Which will help the Future Human Mars Colony.


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